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GELÖST

Anfänger Probleme mit Postfix und Bounces

Frage Linux

Mitglied: daimeon

daimeon (Level 1) - Jetzt verbinden

16.02.2011 um 16:13 Uhr, 8799 Aufrufe, 14 Kommentare

Hallo zusammen.
Mein Problem gestaltet sich wie folgt:

Ich betreibe ein Postfix 2.5 auf einem OpenSuSE 11 und Plesk 9.5

Noch ist der Server im Teststadium, aber ich würde da gerne ein paar Dinge bereits vor Liveschaltung optimieren.
Zum Beispiel dieses Problem:
Auf anderen Servern, die man mir zum Betreuen aufs Auge gedrückt hat wird gespammt. Noch nicht mal von dem Server aus schätze ich sondern einfach über Adressklau.
es werden halt Mails gebounced, die angeblich von auf dem Server vorhandenen Adressen sind.
Das brachte mich hierhin:
http://www.backscatterer.org/index.php?target=bounces

Also ran an den Postfix und den etwas restriktiver geschraubt.
http://www.postfix-howto.de/konfiguration/postfix.htm

wenn ich jetzt allerdings folgende Kommandos ins Telnet hämmere lässt der die Mails trotzdem durch.
HELO forged.domain.name
MAIL FROM: victim@victimdomain.tld
RCPT TO: NoSuchUser@yourcompany.tld
550 User unknown


Schlussendlich zu meiner Frage:
Wie krieg ich dem Postfix beigebogen, das der keine Mails an Adressen durchlässt, die an nicht existierende Adressen gehen. Also halt wie in obigem Beispiel.
Wenn ich unbekannte Domains nehme haut das schonmal hin, z.B. mit
RCPT TO: nobody@mhffffffffrt.das
da spuckt er mir Folgendes aus:
554 5.7.1 <nobody@mhffffffffrt.das>: Relay access denied.

Weiß da jemand Rat?
Mitglied: Der-Phil
16.02.2011 um 16:45 Uhr
Hallo,

ich verstehe noch nicht genau, wo das Problem ist.

Wenn der Mailserver mit 550 User unknown ablehnt, ist doch alles prima!

Phil
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: daimeon
16.02.2011 um 16:54 Uhr
Ja schon, aber der lehnt die nur mit 550 ab wenn er die Domäne nicht kennt.
Unbekannte Empfänger lässt der durch.
Ein Beispiel:

Unter der Domäne test.de gibt es eine Adresse d.moritz@test.de
sende ich nun eine Mail an horst@test.de versucht Postfix die zuzustellen obwohl es die Adresse nicht gibt.

Meine Mailwarteschlange ist voller Nachrichten mit "UNDELIVERED MAIL RETURNED TO SENDER" als Betreff.
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: Der-Phil
16.02.2011 um 17:00 Uhr
Hallo,

das ist aber eigenartig...

Poste mal Dein Log, wenn Du an einen nicht vorhandenen User schickst.

Phil
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: Der-Phil
16.02.2011 um 17:08 Uhr
Hallo,

ich habe noch einmal bei mir auf Postfix-Servern geschaut. Da funktioniert der Bounce ohne irgendwelche wilden Konfigurationen...

unknown_local_recipient_reject_code = 550

Sonst habe ich nichts konfiguriert.

Bist Du sicher, dass Du nicht auf einem Server bleibst und einfach demnach die Bounces selbst erhälst?

Eigentlich schickt nämlich bei 550 der Server, der die Mail an den ablehnenden Server geben will die Fehlermeldung.

Phil
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: daimeon
17.02.2011 um 08:18 Uhr
Ich hab das jetzt nochmal getestet mit
unknown_local_recipient_reject_code = 550
das steht bei mir in der /etc/postfix/main.cf

Wenn ich nun eine Telnet-Verbindung herstelle sieht das so aus:

Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 h1822252.stratoserver.net ESMTP Postfix
HELO forged.domain.name
250 h1822252.stratoserver.net
MAIL FROM: test@absender.de
250 2.1.0 Ok
RCPT TO: nix@empfaenger.de
250 2.1.5 Ok

zur Erklärung: die adresse test@absender.de gibt es, die Adresse nix@empfaenger.de gibt es nicht. Beide Domains liegen auf diesem Server.
Meinem Verständnis nach sollte der Smtp-Server doch antworten mit
550 User unknown

Wenn ich an eine fiktive Adresse schicke antwortet er mit
RCPT TO: nix@hgfjkdfkgjhdfkg.jkkj
554 5.7.1 <nix@hgfjkdfkgjhdfkg.jkkj>: Relay access denied
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: Der-Phil
17.02.2011 um 08:54 Uhr
Hallo,

letzteres ist klar:
Wer nicht in mynetworks oder sonst wie authentifiziert ist, darf immer nur an die lokalen Domains versenden. Sonst hättest Du einen Open-Relay. Das passt.

Warum Dein Server aber nicht die unbekannten Empfänger ablehnt, ist mir ein Rätsel... Tut mir Leid.

Meine Server machen das alle korrekt - egal, ob bei lokaler oder virtueller Domäne und ohne besondere Konfiguration.

Phil
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: daimeon
17.02.2011 um 09:12 Uhr
OK, ich poste mal meine main.cf:
01.
02.
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
03.
# NOTE: Many parameters have already been added to the end of this file 
04.
#       by SuSEconfig.postfix. So take care that you don't uncomment 
05.
#       and set a parameter without checking whether it has been added 
06.
#       to the end of this file. 
07.
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
08.
09.
# Global Postfix configuration file. This file lists only a subset 
10.
# of all parameters. For the syntax, and for a complete parameter 
11.
# list, see the postconf(5) manual page (command: "man 5 postconf"). 
12.
13.
# For common configuration examples, see BASIC_CONFIGURATION_README 
14.
# and STANDARD_CONFIGURATION_README. To find these documents, use 
15.
# the command "postconf html_directory readme_directory", or go to 
16.
# http://www.postfix.org/. 
17.
18.
# For best results, change no more than 2-3 parameters at a time, 
19.
# and test if Postfix still works after every change. 
20.
 
21.
# SOFT BOUNCE 
22.
23.
# The soft_bounce parameter provides a limited safety net for 
24.
# testing.  When soft_bounce is enabled, mail will remain queued that 
25.
# would otherwise bounce. This parameter disables locally-generated 
26.
# bounces, and prevents the SMTP server from rejecting mail permanently 
27.
# (by changing 5xx replies into 4xx replies). However, soft_bounce 
28.
# is no cure for address rewriting mistakes or mail routing mistakes. 
29.
30.
#soft_bounce = no 
31.
 
32.
# LOCAL PATHNAME INFORMATION 
33.
34.
# The queue_directory specifies the location of the Postfix queue. 
35.
# This is also the root directory of Postfix daemons that run chrooted. 
36.
# See the files in examples/chroot-setup for setting up Postfix chroot 
37.
# environments on different UNIX systems. 
38.
39.
queue_directory = /var/spool/postfix 
40.
 
41.
# The command_directory parameter specifies the location of all 
42.
# postXXX commands. 
43.
44.
command_directory = /usr/sbin 
45.
 
46.
# The daemon_directory parameter specifies the location of all Postfix 
47.
# daemon programs (i.e. programs listed in the master.cf file). This 
48.
# directory must be owned by root. 
49.
50.
daemon_directory = /usr/lib/postfix 
51.
 
52.
# The data_directory parameter specifies the location of Postfix-writable 
53.
# data files (caches, random numbers). This directory must be owned 
54.
# by the mail_owner account (see below). 
55.
56.
data_directory = /var/lib/postfix 
57.
 
58.
# QUEUE AND PROCESS OWNERSHIP 
59.
60.
# The mail_owner parameter specifies the owner of the Postfix queue 
61.
# and of most Postfix daemon processes.  Specify the name of a user 
62.
# account THAT DOES NOT SHARE ITS USER OR GROUP ID WITH OTHER ACCOUNTS 
63.
# AND THAT OWNS NO OTHER FILES OR PROCESSES ON THE SYSTEM.  In 
64.
# particular, don't specify nobody or daemon. PLEASE USE A DEDICATED 
65.
# USER. 
66.
67.
mail_owner = postfix 
68.
 
69.
# The default_privs parameter specifies the default rights used by 
70.
# the local delivery agent for delivery to external file or command. 
71.
# These rights are used in the absence of a recipient user context. 
72.
# DO NOT SPECIFY A PRIVILEGED USER OR THE POSTFIX OWNER. 
73.
74.
#default_privs = nobody 
75.
 
76.
# INTERNET HOST AND DOMAIN NAMES 
77.
#  
78.
# The myhostname parameter specifies the internet hostname of this 
79.
# mail system. The default is to use the fully-qualified domain name 
80.
# from gethostname(). $myhostname is used as a default value for many 
81.
# other configuration parameters. 
82.
83.
#myhostname = host.domain.tld 
84.
#myhostname = virtual.domain.tld 
85.
 
86.
# The mydomain parameter specifies the local internet domain name. 
87.
# The default is to use $myhostname minus the first component. 
88.
# $mydomain is used as a default value for many other configuration 
89.
# parameters. 
90.
91.
#mydomain = domain.tld 
92.
 
93.
# SENDING MAIL 
94.
#  
95.
# The myorigin parameter specifies the domain that locally-posted 
96.
# mail appears to come from. The default is to append $myhostname, 
97.
# which is fine for small sites.  If you run a domain with multiple 
98.
# machines, you should (1) change this to $mydomain and (2) set up 
99.
# a domain-wide alias database that aliases each user to 
100.
# user@that.users.mailhost. 
101.
102.
# For the sake of consistency between sender and recipient addresses, 
103.
# myorigin also specifies the default domain name that is appended 
104.
# to recipient addresses that have no @domain part. 
105.
106.
#myorigin = $myhostname 
107.
#myorigin = $mydomain 
108.
 
109.
# RECEIVING MAIL 
110.
 
111.
# The inet_interfaces parameter specifies the network interface 
112.
# addresses that this mail system receives mail on.  By default, 
113.
# the software claims all active interfaces on the machine. The 
114.
# parameter also controls delivery of mail to user@[ip.address]. 
115.
116.
# See also the proxy_interfaces parameter, for network addresses that 
117.
# are forwarded to us via a proxy or network address translator. 
118.
119.
# Note: you need to stop/start Postfix when this parameter changes. 
120.
121.
#inet_interfaces = all 
122.
#inet_interfaces = $myhostname 
123.
#inet_interfaces = $myhostname, localhost 
124.
 
125.
# The proxy_interfaces parameter specifies the network interface 
126.
# addresses that this mail system receives mail on by way of a 
127.
# proxy or network address translation unit. This setting extends 
128.
# the address list specified with the inet_interfaces parameter. 
129.
130.
# You must specify your proxy/NAT addresses when your system is a 
131.
# backup MX host for other domains, otherwise mail delivery loops 
132.
# will happen when the primary MX host is down. 
133.
134.
#proxy_interfaces = 
135.
#proxy_interfaces = 1.2.3.4 
136.
 
137.
# The mydestination parameter specifies the list of domains that this 
138.
# machine considers itself the final destination for. 
139.
140.
# These domains are routed to the delivery agent specified with the 
141.
# local_transport parameter setting. By default, that is the UNIX 
142.
# compatible delivery agent that lookups all recipients in /etc/passwd 
143.
# and /etc/aliases or their equivalent. 
144.
145.
# The default is $myhostname + localhost.$mydomain.  On a mail domain 
146.
# gateway, you should also include $mydomain. 
147.
148.
# Do not specify the names of virtual domains - those domains are 
149.
# specified elsewhere (see VIRTUAL_README). 
150.
151.
# Do not specify the names of domains that this machine is backup MX 
152.
# host for. Specify those names via the relay_domains settings for 
153.
# the SMTP server, or use permit_mx_backup if you are lazy (see 
154.
# STANDARD_CONFIGURATION_README). 
155.
156.
# The local machine is always the final destination for mail addressed 
157.
# to user@[the.net.work.address] of an interface that the mail system 
158.
# receives mail on (see the inet_interfaces parameter). 
159.
160.
# Specify a list of host or domain names, /file/name or type:table 
161.
# patterns, separated by commas and/or whitespace. A /file/name 
162.
# pattern is replaced by its contents; a type:table is matched when 
163.
# a name matches a lookup key (the right-hand side is ignored). 
164.
# Continue long lines by starting the next line with whitespace. 
165.
166.
# See also below, section "REJECTING MAIL FOR UNKNOWN LOCAL USERS". 
167.
168.
#mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost 
169.
#mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost, $mydomain 
170.
#mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost, $mydomain, 
171.
#	mail.$mydomain, www.$mydomain, ftp.$mydomain 
172.
 
173.
# REJECTING MAIL FOR UNKNOWN LOCAL USERS 
174.
175.
# The local_recipient_maps parameter specifies optional lookup tables 
176.
# with all names or addresses of users that are local with respect 
177.
# to $mydestination, $inet_interfaces or $proxy_interfaces. 
178.
179.
# If this parameter is defined, then the SMTP server will reject 
180.
# mail for unknown local users. This parameter is defined by default. 
181.
182.
# To turn off local recipient checking in the SMTP server, specify 
183.
# local_recipient_maps = (i.e. empty). 
184.
185.
# The default setting assumes that you use the default Postfix local 
186.
# delivery agent for local delivery. You need to update the 
187.
# local_recipient_maps setting if: 
188.
189.
# - You define $mydestination domain recipients in files other than 
190.
#   /etc/passwd, /etc/aliases, or the $virtual_alias_maps files. 
191.
#   For example, you define $mydestination domain recipients in     
192.
#   the $virtual_mailbox_maps files. 
193.
194.
# - You redefine the local delivery agent in master.cf. 
195.
196.
# - You redefine the "local_transport" setting in main.cf. 
197.
198.
# - You use the "luser_relay", "mailbox_transport", or "fallback_transport" 
199.
#   feature of the Postfix local delivery agent (see local(8)). 
200.
201.
# Details are described in the LOCAL_RECIPIENT_README file. 
202.
203.
# Beware: if the Postfix SMTP server runs chrooted, you probably have 
204.
# to access the passwd file via the proxymap service, in order to 
205.
# overcome chroot restrictions. The alternative, having a copy of 
206.
# the system passwd file in the chroot jail is just not practical. 
207.
208.
# The right-hand side of the lookup tables is conveniently ignored. 
209.
# In the left-hand side, specify a bare username, an @domain.tld 
210.
# wild-card, or specify a user@domain.tld address. 
211.
#  
212.
#local_recipient_maps = unix:passwd.byname $alias_maps 
213.
#local_recipient_maps = proxy:unix:passwd.byname $alias_maps 
214.
#local_recipient_maps = 
215.
 
216.
# The unknown_local_recipient_reject_code specifies the SMTP server 
217.
# response code when a recipient domain matches $mydestination or 
218.
# ${proxy,inet}_interfaces, while $local_recipient_maps is non-empty 
219.
# and the recipient address or address local-part is not found. 
220.
221.
# The default setting is 550 (reject mail) but it is safer to start 
222.
# with 450 (try again later) until you are certain that your 
223.
# local_recipient_maps settings are OK. 
224.
225.
unknown_local_recipient_reject_code = 550 
226.
 
227.
# TRUST AND RELAY CONTROL 
228.
 
229.
# The mynetworks parameter specifies the list of "trusted" SMTP 
230.
# clients that have more privileges than "strangers". 
231.
232.
# In particular, "trusted" SMTP clients are allowed to relay mail 
233.
# through Postfix.  See the smtpd_recipient_restrictions parameter 
234.
# in postconf(5). 
235.
236.
# You can specify the list of "trusted" network addresses by hand 
237.
# or you can let Postfix do it for you (which is the default). 
238.
239.
# By default (mynetworks_style = subnet), Postfix "trusts" SMTP 
240.
# clients in the same IP subnetworks as the local machine. 
241.
# On Linux, this does works correctly only with interfaces specified 
242.
# with the "ifconfig" command. 
243.
#  
244.
# Specify "mynetworks_style = class" when Postfix should "trust" SMTP 
245.
# clients in the same IP class A/B/C networks as the local machine. 
246.
# Don't do this with a dialup site - it would cause Postfix to "trust" 
247.
# your entire provider's network.  Instead, specify an explicit 
248.
# mynetworks list by hand, as described below. 
249.
#   
250.
# Specify "mynetworks_style = host" when Postfix should "trust" 
251.
# only the local machine. 
252.
#  
253.
#mynetworks_style = class 
254.
#mynetworks_style = subnet 
255.
#mynetworks_style = host 
256.
 
257.
# Alternatively, you can specify the mynetworks list by hand, in 
258.
# which case Postfix ignores the mynetworks_style setting. 
259.
260.
# Specify an explicit list of network/netmask patterns, where the 
261.
# mask specifies the number of bits in the network part of a host 
262.
# address. 
263.
264.
# You can also specify the absolute pathname of a pattern file instead 
265.
# of listing the patterns here. Specify type:table for table-based lookups 
266.
# (the value on the table right-hand side is not used). 
267.
268.
#mynetworks = 168.100.189.0/28, 127.0.0.0/8 
269.
#mynetworks = $config_directory/mynetworks 
270.
#mynetworks = hash:/etc/postfix/network_table 
271.
 
272.
# The relay_domains parameter restricts what destinations this system will 
273.
# relay mail to.  See the smtpd_recipient_restrictions description in 
274.
# postconf(5) for detailed information. 
275.
276.
# By default, Postfix relays mail 
277.
# - from "trusted" clients (IP address matches $mynetworks) to any destination, 
278.
# - from "untrusted" clients to destinations that match $relay_domains or 
279.
#   subdomains thereof, except addresses with sender-specified routing. 
280.
# The default relay_domains value is $mydestination. 
281.
#  
282.
# In addition to the above, the Postfix SMTP server by default accepts mail 
283.
# that Postfix is final destination for: 
284.
# - destinations that match $inet_interfaces or $proxy_interfaces, 
285.
# - destinations that match $mydestination 
286.
# - destinations that match $virtual_alias_domains, 
287.
# - destinations that match $virtual_mailbox_domains. 
288.
# These destinations do not need to be listed in $relay_domains. 
289.
#  
290.
# Specify a list of hosts or domains, /file/name patterns or type:name 
291.
# lookup tables, separated by commas and/or whitespace.  Continue 
292.
# long lines by starting the next line with whitespace. A file name 
293.
# is replaced by its contents; a type:name table is matched when a 
294.
# (parent) domain appears as lookup key. 
295.
296.
# NOTE: Postfix will not automatically forward mail for domains that 
297.
# list this system as their primary or backup MX host. See the 
298.
# permit_mx_backup restriction description in postconf(5). 
299.
300.
#relay_domains = $mydestination 
301.
 
302.
# INTERNET OR INTRANET 
303.
 
304.
# The relayhost parameter specifies the default host to send mail to 
305.
# when no entry is matched in the optional transport(5) table. When 
306.
# no relayhost is given, mail is routed directly to the destination. 
307.
308.
# On an intranet, specify the organizational domain name. If your 
309.
# internal DNS uses no MX records, specify the name of the intranet 
310.
# gateway host instead. 
311.
312.
# In the case of SMTP, specify a domain, host, host:port, [host]:port, 
313.
# [address] or [address]:port; the form [host] turns off MX lookups. 
314.
315.
# If you're connected via UUCP, see also the default_transport parameter. 
316.
317.
#relayhost = $mydomain 
318.
#relayhost = [gateway.my.domain] 
319.
#relayhost = [mailserver.isp.tld] 
320.
#relayhost = uucphost 
321.
#relayhost = [an.ip.add.ress] 
322.
 
323.
# REJECTING UNKNOWN RELAY USERS 
324.
325.
# The relay_recipient_maps parameter specifies optional lookup tables 
326.
# with all addresses in the domains that match $relay_domains. 
327.
328.
# If this parameter is defined, then the SMTP server will reject 
329.
# mail for unknown relay users. This feature is off by default. 
330.
331.
# The right-hand side of the lookup tables is conveniently ignored. 
332.
# In the left-hand side, specify an @domain.tld wild-card, or specify 
333.
# a user@domain.tld address. 
334.
#  
335.
#relay_recipient_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/relay_recipients 
336.
 
337.
# INPUT RATE CONTROL 
338.
339.
# The in_flow_delay configuration parameter implements mail input 
340.
# flow control. This feature is turned on by default, although it 
341.
# still needs further development (it's disabled on SCO UNIX due 
342.
# to an SCO bug). 
343.
#  
344.
# A Postfix process will pause for $in_flow_delay seconds before 
345.
# accepting a new message, when the message arrival rate exceeds the 
346.
# message delivery rate. With the default 100 SMTP server process 
347.
# limit, this limits the mail inflow to 100 messages a second more 
348.
# than the number of messages delivered per second. 
349.
#  
350.
# Specify 0 to disable the feature. Valid delays are 0..10. 
351.
#  
352.
#in_flow_delay = 1s 
353.
 
354.
# ADDRESS REWRITING 
355.
356.
# The ADDRESS_REWRITING_README document gives information about 
357.
# address masquerading or other forms of address rewriting including 
358.
# username->Firstname.Lastname mapping. 
359.
 
360.
# ADDRESS REDIRECTION (VIRTUAL DOMAIN) 
361.
362.
# The VIRTUAL_README document gives information about the many forms 
363.
# of domain hosting that Postfix supports. 
364.
 
365.
# "USER HAS MOVED" BOUNCE MESSAGES 
366.
367.
# See the discussion in the ADDRESS_REWRITING_README document. 
368.
 
369.
# TRANSPORT MAP 
370.
371.
# See the discussion in the ADDRESS_REWRITING_README document. 
372.
 
373.
# ALIAS DATABASE 
374.
375.
# The alias_maps parameter specifies the list of alias databases used 
376.
# by the local delivery agent. The default list is system dependent. 
377.
378.
# On systems with NIS, the default is to search the local alias 
379.
# database, then the NIS alias database. See aliases(5) for syntax 
380.
# details. 
381.
#  
382.
# If you change the alias database, run "postalias /etc/aliases" (or 
383.
# wherever your system stores the mail alias file), or simply run 
384.
# "newaliases" to build the necessary DBM or DB file. 
385.
386.
# It will take a minute or so before changes become visible.  Use 
387.
# "postfix reload" to eliminate the delay. 
388.
389.
#alias_maps = dbm:/etc/aliases 
390.
#alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases 
391.
#alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases, nis:mail.aliases 
392.
#alias_maps = netinfo:/aliases 
393.
 
394.
# The alias_database parameter specifies the alias database(s) that 
395.
# are built with "newaliases" or "sendmail -bi".  This is a separate 
396.
# configuration parameter, because alias_maps (see above) may specify 
397.
# tables that are not necessarily all under control by Postfix. 
398.
399.
#alias_database = dbm:/etc/aliases 
400.
#alias_database = dbm:/etc/mail/aliases 
401.
#alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases 
402.
#alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases, hash:/opt/majordomo/aliases 
403.
 
404.
# ADDRESS EXTENSIONS (e.g., user+foo) 
405.
406.
# The recipient_delimiter parameter specifies the separator between 
407.
# user names and address extensions (user+foo). See canonical(5), 
408.
# local(8), relocated(5) and virtual(5) for the effects this has on 
409.
# aliases, canonical, virtual, relocated and .forward file lookups. 
410.
# Basically, the software tries user+foo and .forward+foo before 
411.
# trying user and .forward. 
412.
413.
#recipient_delimiter = + 
414.
 
415.
# DELIVERY TO MAILBOX 
416.
417.
# The home_mailbox parameter specifies the optional pathname of a 
418.
# mailbox file relative to a user's home directory. The default 
419.
# mailbox file is /var/spool/mail/user or /var/mail/user.  Specify 
420.
# "Maildir/" for qmail-style delivery (the / is required). 
421.
422.
#home_mailbox = Mailbox 
423.
#home_mailbox = Maildir/ 
424.
  
425.
# The mail_spool_directory parameter specifies the directory where 
426.
# UNIX-style mailboxes are kept. The default setting depends on the 
427.
# system type. 
428.
429.
#mail_spool_directory = /var/mail 
430.
#mail_spool_directory = /var/spool/mail 
431.
 
432.
# The mailbox_command parameter specifies the optional external 
433.
# command to use instead of mailbox delivery. The command is run as 
434.
# the recipient with proper HOME, SHELL and LOGNAME environment settings. 
435.
# Exception:  delivery for root is done as $default_user. 
436.
437.
# Other environment variables of interest: USER (recipient username), 
438.
# EXTENSION (address extension), DOMAIN (domain part of address), 
439.
# and LOCAL (the address localpart). 
440.
441.
# Unlike other Postfix configuration parameters, the mailbox_command 
442.
# parameter is not subjected to $parameter substitutions. This is to 
443.
# make it easier to specify shell syntax (see example below). 
444.
445.
# Avoid shell meta characters because they will force Postfix to run 
446.
# an expensive shell process. Procmail alone is expensive enough. 
447.
448.
# IF YOU USE THIS TO DELIVER MAIL SYSTEM-WIDE, YOU MUST SET UP AN 
449.
# ALIAS THAT FORWARDS MAIL FOR ROOT TO A REAL USER. 
450.
451.
#mailbox_command = /some/where/procmail 
452.
#mailbox_command = /some/where/procmail -a "$EXTENSION" 
453.
 
454.
# The mailbox_transport specifies the optional transport in master.cf 
455.
# to use after processing aliases and .forward files. This parameter 
456.
# has precedence over the mailbox_command, fallback_transport and 
457.
# luser_relay parameters. 
458.
459.
# Specify a string of the form transport:nexthop, where transport is 
460.
# the name of a mail delivery transport defined in master.cf.  The 
461.
# :nexthop part is optional. For more details see the sample transport 
462.
# configuration file. 
463.
464.
# NOTE: if you use this feature for accounts not in the UNIX password 
465.
# file, then you must update the "local_recipient_maps" setting in 
466.
# the main.cf file, otherwise the SMTP server will reject mail for     
467.
# non-UNIX accounts with "User unknown in local recipient table". 
468.
469.
#mailbox_transport = lmtp:unix:/file/name 
470.
#mailbox_transport = cyrus 
471.
 
472.
# The fallback_transport specifies the optional transport in master.cf 
473.
# to use for recipients that are not found in the UNIX passwd database. 
474.
# This parameter has precedence over the luser_relay parameter. 
475.
476.
# Specify a string of the form transport:nexthop, where transport is 
477.
# the name of a mail delivery transport defined in master.cf.  The 
478.
# :nexthop part is optional. For more details see the sample transport 
479.
# configuration file. 
480.
481.
# NOTE: if you use this feature for accounts not in the UNIX password 
482.
# file, then you must update the "local_recipient_maps" setting in 
483.
# the main.cf file, otherwise the SMTP server will reject mail for     
484.
# non-UNIX accounts with "User unknown in local recipient table". 
485.
486.
#fallback_transport = lmtp:unix:/file/name 
487.
#fallback_transport = cyrus 
488.
#fallback_transport = 
489.
 
490.
# The luser_relay parameter specifies an optional destination address 
491.
# for unknown recipients.  By default, mail for unknown@$mydestination, 
492.
# unknown@[$inet_interfaces] or unknown@[$proxy_interfaces] is returned 
493.
# as undeliverable. 
494.
495.
# The following expansions are done on luser_relay: $user (recipient 
496.
# username), $shell (recipient shell), $home (recipient home directory), 
497.
# $recipient (full recipient address), $extension (recipient address 
498.
# extension), $domain (recipient domain), $local (entire recipient 
499.
# localpart), $recipient_delimiter. Specify ${name?value} or 
500.
# ${name:value} to expand value only when $name does (does not) exist. 
501.
502.
# luser_relay works only for the default Postfix local delivery agent. 
503.
504.
# NOTE: if you use this feature for accounts not in the UNIX password 
505.
# file, then you must specify "local_recipient_maps =" (i.e. empty) in 
506.
# the main.cf file, otherwise the SMTP server will reject mail for     
507.
# non-UNIX accounts with "User unknown in local recipient table". 
508.
509.
#luser_relay = $user@other.host 
510.
#luser_relay = $local@other.host 
511.
#luser_relay = admin+$local 
512.
   
513.
# JUNK MAIL CONTROLS 
514.
#  
515.
# The controls listed here are only a very small subset. The file 
516.
# SMTPD_ACCESS_README provides an overview. 
517.
 
518.
# The header_checks parameter specifies an optional table with patterns 
519.
# that each logical message header is matched against, including 
520.
# headers that span multiple physical lines. 
521.
522.
# By default, these patterns also apply to MIME headers and to the 
523.
# headers of attached messages. With older Postfix versions, MIME and 
524.
# attached message headers were treated as body text. 
525.
526.
# For details, see "man header_checks". 
527.
528.
#header_checks = regexp:/etc/postfix/header_checks 
529.
 
530.
# FAST ETRN SERVICE 
531.
532.
# Postfix maintains per-destination logfiles with information about 
533.
# deferred mail, so that mail can be flushed quickly with the SMTP 
534.
# "ETRN domain.tld" command, or by executing "sendmail -qRdomain.tld". 
535.
# See the ETRN_README document for a detailed description. 
536.
#  
537.
# The fast_flush_domains parameter controls what destinations are 
538.
# eligible for this service. By default, they are all domains that 
539.
# this server is willing to relay mail to. 
540.
#  
541.
#fast_flush_domains = $relay_domains 
542.
 
543.
# SHOW SOFTWARE VERSION OR NOT 
544.
545.
# The smtpd_banner parameter specifies the text that follows the 220 
546.
# code in the SMTP server's greeting banner. Some people like to see 
547.
# the mail version advertised. By default, Postfix shows no version. 
548.
549.
# You MUST specify $myhostname at the start of the text. That is an 
550.
# RFC requirement. Postfix itself does not care. 
551.
552.
#smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name 
553.
#smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name ($mail_version) 
554.
 
555.
# PARALLEL DELIVERY TO THE SAME DESTINATION 
556.
557.
# How many parallel deliveries to the same user or domain? With local 
558.
# delivery, it does not make sense to do massively parallel delivery 
559.
# to the same user, because mailbox updates must happen sequentially, 
560.
# and expensive pipelines in .forward files can cause disasters when 
561.
# too many are run at the same time. With SMTP deliveries, 10 
562.
# simultaneous connections to the same domain could be sufficient to 
563.
# raise eyebrows. 
564.
#  
565.
# Each message delivery transport has its XXX_destination_concurrency_limit 
566.
# parameter.  The default is $default_destination_concurrency_limit for 
567.
# most delivery transports. For the local delivery agent the default is 2. 
568.
 
569.
#local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2 
570.
#default_destination_concurrency_limit = 20 
571.
 
572.
# DEBUGGING CONTROL 
573.
574.
# The debug_peer_level parameter specifies the increment in verbose 
575.
# logging level when an SMTP client or server host name or address 
576.
# matches a pattern in the debug_peer_list parameter. 
577.
578.
debug_peer_level = 2 
579.
 
580.
# The debug_peer_list parameter specifies an optional list of domain 
581.
# or network patterns, /file/name patterns or type:name tables. When 
582.
# an SMTP client or server host name or address matches a pattern, 
583.
# increase the verbose logging level by the amount specified in the 
584.
# debug_peer_level parameter. 
585.
586.
#debug_peer_list = 127.0.0.1 
587.
#debug_peer_list = some.domain 
588.
 
589.
# The debugger_command specifies the external command that is executed 
590.
# when a Postfix daemon program is run with the -D option. 
591.
592.
# Use "command .. & sleep 5" so that the debugger can attach before 
593.
# the process marches on. If you use an X-based debugger, be sure to 
594.
# set up your XAUTHORITY environment variable before starting Postfix. 
595.
596.
debugger_command = 
597.
	 PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin 
598.
	 ddd $daemon_directory/$process_name $process_id & sleep 5 
599.
 
600.
# If you can't use X, use this to capture the call stack when a 
601.
# daemon crashes. The result is in a file in the configuration 
602.
# directory, and is named after the process name and the process ID. 
603.
604.
# debugger_command = 
605.
#	PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin; export PATH; (echo cont; 
606.
#	echo where) | gdb $daemon_directory/$process_name $process_id 2>&1 
607.
#	>$config_directory/$process_name.$process_id.log & sleep 5 
608.
609.
# Another possibility is to run gdb under a detached screen session. 
610.
# To attach to the screen sesssion, su root and run "screen -r 
611.
# <id_string>" where <id_string> uniquely matches one of the detached 
612.
# sessions (from "screen -list"). 
613.
614.
# debugger_command = 
615.
#	PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin; export PATH; screen 
616.
#	-dmS $process_name gdb $daemon_directory/$process_name 
617.
#	$process_id & sleep 1 
618.
 
619.
# INSTALL-TIME CONFIGURATION INFORMATION 
620.
621.
# The following parameters are used when installing a new Postfix version. 
622.
#  
623.
# sendmail_path: The full pathname of the Postfix sendmail command. 
624.
# This is the Sendmail-compatible mail posting interface. 
625.
#  
626.
sendmail_path = /usr/sbin/sendmail 
627.
 
628.
# newaliases_path: The full pathname of the Postfix newaliases command. 
629.
# This is the Sendmail-compatible command to build alias databases. 
630.
631.
newaliases_path = /usr/bin/newaliases 
632.
 
633.
# mailq_path: The full pathname of the Postfix mailq command.  This 
634.
# is the Sendmail-compatible mail queue listing command. 
635.
#  
636.
mailq_path = /usr/bin/mailq 
637.
 
638.
# setgid_group: The group for mail submission and queue management 
639.
# commands.  This must be a group name with a numerical group ID that 
640.
# is not shared with other accounts, not even with the Postfix account. 
641.
642.
setgid_group = maildrop 
643.
 
644.
# html_directory: The location of the Postfix HTML documentation. 
645.
646.
html_directory = /usr/share/doc/packages/postfix-doc/html
  1. manpage_directory: The location of the Postfix on-line manual pages.
manpage_directory = /usr/share/man

  1. sample_directory: The location of the Postfix sample configuration files.
  2. This parameter is obsolete as of Postfix 2.1.
sample_directory = /usr/share/doc/packages/postfix-doc/samples

  1. readme_directory: The location of the Postfix README files.
readme_directory = /usr/share/doc/packages/postfix-doc/README_FILES
inet_protocols = all
biff = no
mail_spool_directory = /var/mail
canonical_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/canonical
virtual_alias_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual, hash:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/virtual
virtual_alias_domains = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual, hash:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/virtual
relocated_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/relocated
transport_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/transport, hash:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/transport
sender_canonical_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/sender_canonical
masquerade_exceptions = root
masquerade_classes = envelope_sender, header_sender, header_recipient
myhostname = h1822252.stratoserver.net
delay_warning_time = 0h
message_strip_characters = \0
program_directory = /usr/lib/postfix
inet_interfaces = all
masquerade_domains =
mydestination = localhost.$mydomain, localhost, localhost.localdomain
defer_transports =
mynetworks_style = subnet
disable_dns_lookups = no
relayhost =
mailbox_command =
mailbox_transport =
strict_8bitmime = no
disable_mime_output_conversion = no
smtpd_sender_restrictions = hash:/etc/postfix/access, check_sender_access hash:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/blacklists, permit_sasl_authenticated, check_client_access pcre:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/non_auth.re, reject_unauth_destination, reject_non_fqdn_sender, reject_non_fqdn_recipient, reject_unknown_recipient_domain, reject_unauth_pipelining
smtpd_client_restrictions =
smtpd_helo_required = yes
smtpd_helo_restrictions =
permit_sasl_authenticated,
permit_mynetworks,
reject_unauth_destination,
reject_non_fqdn_sender,
reject_non_fqdn_recipient,
reject_unknown_recipient_domain,
reject_non_fqdn_hostname,
reject_invalid_hostname,
reject_unauth_pipelining
strict_rfc821_envelopes = no
smtpd_recipient_restrictions =
permit_mynetworks,
check_client_access pcre:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/no_relay.re,
permit_sasl_authenticated,
reject_unauth_destination,
reject_invalid_hostname,
reject_non_fqdn_hostname,
reject_non_fqdn_sender,
reject_non_fqdn_recipient,
reject_unknown_sender_domain,
reject_unknown_recipient_domain,
reject_unauth_pipelining
smtp_sasl_auth_enable = no
smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_use_tls = yes
smtp_use_tls = no
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases, hash:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/aliases
mailbox_size_limit = 0
message_size_limit = 20971520
virtual_mailbox_domains = $virtual_mailbox_maps, hash:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/virtual_domains
virtual_mailbox_maps = hash:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/vmailbox
smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/postfix_default.pem
smtpd_tls_key_file = $smtpd_tls_cert_file
smtpd_tls_security_level = may
smtp_tls_security_level = may
smtp_send_xforward_command = yes
smtpd_authorized_xforward_hosts = 127.0.0.0/8
virtual_mailbox_base = /var/qmail/mailnames
virtual_uid_maps = static:110
virtual_gid_maps = static:30
virtual_transport = plesk_virtual
plesk_virtual_destination_recipient_limit = 1
smtpd_timeout = 3600s
smtpd_proxy_timeout = 3600s
mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8, 85.214.220.21/32 [::1]/128 [fe80::%eth0]/64

maximal_queue_lifetime = 1d
unverified_sender_reject_code = 550
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: Der-Phil
17.02.2011 um 09:22 Uhr
Hallo,

nur so prinzipiell:
Wenn Du nicht die komplette Default-Config von oben in ein Forum kopierst (die eh auskommentiert ist), lesen auch mehr Leute bis unten...

Was mir aufgefallen ist:

mydomain ist gar nicht gesetzt.

Wo hast Du dem Server überhaupt gesagt, welche Domains er betreuen soll? In der Config finde ich nichts.

Phil
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: daimeon
17.02.2011 um 09:24 Uhr
Ups, sorry.

Tja, gute Frage. Auf dem Server laufen ja mehrere Domains. Muss ich die da manuell eintragen? Ist vielleicht ne blöde Frage, aber trotzdem *schäm*
Wo würde ich die denn in der main.cf eintragen?
Bzw. wo könnten die denn noch drinstehen sodass ich das nachsehen kann?
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: Der-Phil
17.02.2011 um 09:35 Uhr
Hallo,

das kommt einfach darauf an, was Du willst, aber wenn Dein Postfix nicht weiß, welche Domains er hat, ist er eben aufgeschmissen...

Wenn Du mehrere Local-Domains hast, wird jedem User eine E-Mail-Adresse in jeder Domain zugeordnet:

Willst Du zwei Domains asdf.local und sdfg.local haben, wobei tom@asdf.local eine andere Person ist, als tom@sdfg.local, musst Du mit Virtual-Domains arbeiten oder einem Alias.

Lese Dir doch einfach mal die sehr gut kommentierte Main.cf durch. Da steht eigentlich alles drin. Z.b. auch, dass:

  1. The mydestination parameter specifies the list of domains that this
  2. machine considers itself the final destination for.

und dann siehst Du, dass bei Dir:
mydestination = localhost.$mydomain, localhost, localhost.localdomain

--> Dein Server ist nur zuständig für: localhost und localhost.localdomain

Phil
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: daimeon
17.02.2011 um 09:41 Uhr
Ok, also die Zeile müsste ich dann ergänzen um die Domains die Postfix verwalten soll?
mydestination = localhost.$mydomain, localhost, localhost.localdomain, meinedomain1.de, meinedomain2.de

Ich verwende ja zur Konfiguration des Server das Plesk 9.5
sollte das da nicht reinschreiben, bzw. überschreibt der mir die main.cf wenn ich innerhalb des Plesk eine neue Domain anlege?
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: Der-Phil
17.02.2011 um 09:56 Uhr
Hallo,

mit Plesk kenne ich mich nicht aus.

Sonst musst Du eben die Punkte durchgehen. Wenn Du in mydestinations die Variable mydomain stehen hast, musst Du die eben auch definieren, sonst ist das Quatsch.

Phil
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: daimeon
17.02.2011 um 12:01 Uhr
OK,

ich bin ein wenig weiter:
Soweit ich das durchschaue speichert Plesk die Aliase in /var/spool/postfix/plesk/virtual_domains.db

die Zeile
virtual_mailbox_domains = $virtual_mailbox_maps, hash:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/virtual_domains
aus der main.cf verwirrt mich da allerdings etwas, müsste die dann nicht so lauten:
virtual_mailbox_domains = $virtual_mailbox_maps, mysql:/var/spool/postfix/plesk/virtual_domains.db
Bitte warten ..
Mitglied: daimeon
24.02.2011 um 11:17 Uhr
So, ich hab's gelöst.

In der Postfix-Konfiguration war soweit alles OK, allerdings gibt es im PLESK einen Override dafür, der die Einstellungen in der main.cf ignoriert.
Plesk hat quasi immer Recht, auch wenn Postfix das ander sieht.

Also: Im Plesk umstellen und fertig.
Bitte warten ..
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